Period 2

The Problem(s)

  • African Americans had a very bleak life. They lived an average of 33 years, a dozen years less than that of a white American. There life expectancy was the same as a peasant in early nineteenth century India.
  • Most of them were also uneducated. In 1915, South Carolina spent one-twelfth as much of money on black children then they did on white children, for their schools and education. In North Carolina only 19 black youths were enrolled in public high schools.
  • Jim Crow laws were a problem as well. African Americans in the South faced social segregation and were deprived of the right to vote as well as other prerogatives of citizens. Jim Crow was the system of racial discrimination based on law and customs. It was named after a mid-nineteenth century blackfaced minstrel act.
  • Lynching was a huge problem in the south. Lynching is the act of hanging an individual by a mob under the pretense of administering justice. Many white men said that the reason for the lynching was because the black man (whom they hanged) had tried to rape white women. Lynchings were used for many different reasons too. Lynching was so common in many rural towns that when there was no entertainment they would watch a man being hung. The estimate for the number of lynchings between 1900 and 1915 is around 1000.

The Solution(s)

  • Major leaders in the movement were Brooker T. Washington, W.E.B Du Bois, and Marcus Garvey.
  • Washington believed that African Americans should advance through education and effort as opposed to seeking social and political equality with whites.
  • W.E.B Du Bois founded the Nation Assosiation for the Advancement of Colored People. This organization was dedicated to improve the African-American role in American society.
  • The Niagra movement didn’t have many members, but it helped pave the way for the NAACP. It helped the African-Americans stand out in the communities.
  • The NAACP fought against the Jim Crow laws.
  • NAACP soon started to improve the education, transportation, and lives of African-American life.
  • An African-American journalist named Ida Wells-Barnett began the anti-lynching crusades after 3 of her friends were hung in 1892.
  • In 1910 the NAACP started to publicly condemn lynching. They started to hold public meetings, lobbied public officials, and began press investigations on lynching.
  • In 1900, the first anti-lynching bill was made in the House of Representatives. This bill later died in committee.
  • 19 years later, another law was introduced to stop the lynching.· Supporters fought for this bill for three years before it was defeated in 1922.

The Images

W.E.B Du Bois devoted his life to try to get equality for African Americans and other people of color. He is considered one of the great American historians. He is also one of the foremost reformers of the 20th century.

W.E.B Du Bois

Booker T. Washington was a major spokesperson for his race during his life. He believed that African Americans advance through education and effort and not through social and political equality.

Booker T. Washington

Marcus Garvey was the first to launch a mass movement of African Americans. The movement was based on racial pride, self-help, and separatism. He raised the spirit of black nationalism that helped become a new force in race relations.

Marcus Garvey

Ida Wells-Barnett was a school teacher who refused to move from her seat on the train because she was in the wrong section. She sued the train company because when she refused to move they threw her off. She ended up winning, although in 1887 the state Supreme Court of Tennessee reversed their decision.


Ida Wells-Barnett

The Primary Sources

"Success is to be measured not so much by the position that one has reached in life as by the obstacles which he has overcome while trying to succeed."
-Brooker T. Washington
"The cost of liberty is less than the price of repression."
-W.E.B Du Bois
"The problem of the twentieth century is the problem of the color line—the relation of the darker to the lighter races of men in Asia and Africa, in America and the islands of the sea."
-W.E.B Du Bois

The Citations

Google Images
W.E.B Du Bois Biography on Abc Clio.http://www.americanhistory.abc-clio.com/library/searches/searchdisplay.aspx?entryid=246709&fulltext=w.e.b+Du+Bois&nav=rlist
Ida Wells-Barnett on Abc Clio. http://www.americanhistory.abc-clio.com/library/searches/searchdisplay.aspx?fulltext=lynching&nav=rlist&specialtopicid=-1&entryid=248137&categorytypeid=1
Booker T. Washington on Abc Clio. http://www.americanhistory.abc-clio.com/library/searches/searchdisplay.aspx?entryid=248114&fulltext=booker+t+washington&nav=rlist
Washington Quote on success. http://www.americanhistory.abc-clio.com/library/searches/searchdisplay.aspx?fulltext=booker+t+washington&nav=rlist&entryid=281675&categorytypeid=1
Du Bois Quote on liberty. http://www.americanhistory.abc-clio.com/library/searches/searchdisplay.aspx?fulltext=w.e.b+du+bois&nav=rlist&entryid=264618&categorytypeid=1
Du Bois Quote on race relations. http://www.americanhistory.abc-clio.com/library/searches/searchdisplay.aspx?fulltext=w.e.b+du+bois&nav=rlist&entryid=281381&categorytypeid=1
Marcus Garveyon Abc Clio. http://www.americanhistory.abc-clio.com/library/searches/searchdisplay.aspx?entryid=246861&fulltext=Marcus+Garvey&nav=non&specialtopicid=-1